Ampicillin Sodium

31/03/2009 11:53

Ampicillin Sodium

Brand Name:

Oral: Ampicin (CAN), Apo-Ampi (CAN), Marcillin, Novo-Ampicillin (CAN), Nu-Ampi (CAN), Omnipen, Penbritin (CAN), Principen, Totacillin

Parenteral: Omnipen-N

Pregnancy Category B

Drug classes: Antibiotic, Penicillin


Therapeutic actions

Bactericidal action against sensitive organisms; inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall, causing cell death.



· Treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of Shigella, Salmonella, E. coli, H. influenzae, P. mirabilis, N. gonorrhoeae, enterococci, gram-positive organisms (penicillin G–sensitive staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci)

· Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis

· Unlabeled use: prophylaxis in cesarean section in certain high-risk patients



· Contraindicated with allergies to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens.


Adverse effects

Lethargy, hallucinations, seizures, , CHF, Glossitis, stomatitis, gastritis, sore mouth, furry tongue, black “hairy” tongue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, enterocolitis, pseudomembranous colitis, nonspecific hepatitis, Nephritis, Anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, prolonged bleeding time, Rash, fever, wheezing, anaphylaxis, Pain, phlebitis, thrombosis at injection site (parenteral), Superinfections--oral and rectal moniliasis, vaginitis


Drug Interactions

· Increased ampicillin effect with probenecid

· Increased risk of rash with allopurinol

· Increased bleeding effect with heparin, oral anticoagulants

· Decreased effectiveness with tetracyclines, chloramphenicol

· Decreased efficacy of oral contraceptives, atenolol with ampicillin


· Oral ampicillin may be less effective with food; take on an empty stomach


· False-positive Coombs' test if given IV

· Decrease in plasma estrogen concentrations in pregnant women

· False-positive urine glucose tests if Clinitest, Benedict's solution, or Fehling's solution is used; enzymatic glucose oxidase methods (Clinistix, Tes-Tape) should be used to check urine glucose


Nursing considerations


· Culture infected area before treatment; reculture area if response is not as expected.

· Check IV site carefully for signs of thrombosis or drug reaction.

· Do not give IM injections in the same site; atrophy can occur. Monitor injection sites.

· Administer oral drug on an empty stomach, 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals with a full glass of water--no fruit juice or soft drinks.